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Pilomatrixoma is a slow-growing, hard mass found beneath the skin. It is most common on the face and neck, but is sometimes found on the scalp, eyelids, and arms. Pilomatrixoma is usually a single lump, but, occasionally, multiple masses are seen. Most cases of pilomatrixoma occur in children under the age of 10, and the condition is twice as common in females as males. Other names for pilomatrixoma include pilomatricoma and calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe.
What causes pilomatrixoma?
Pilomatrixomas develop from an abnormal formation of cells that are similar to hair cells, which become hardened or calcified. The calcified cells form a mass beneath the skin.
Other members of a child's family may also have pilomatrixoma, suggesting a genetic component.
What are the symptoms of pilomatrixoma?
The following are the most common symptoms of pilomatrixoma. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include a small, hard mass beneath the skin of the face, head, neck, or arms. The mass is usually less than 3 centimeters in diameter and the skin covering the mass appears normal, or may feel firm or hardened. Usually, the mass is painless, unless it becomes infected.
The symptoms of pilomatrixoma may resemble other neck masses or medical problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
How is pilomatrixoma diagnosed?
Generally, pilomatrixoma is diagnosed by physical examination. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for pilomatrixoma may include a biopsy - a procedure in which tissue samples are removed (with a needle or during surgery) from the body for examination under a microscope; to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Treatment of pilomatrixoma:
Specific treatment of pilomatrixoma will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the condition
- your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the condition
- your opinion or preference
Treatment may include surgery to remove the mass and some of the surrounding tissue. Pilomatrixomas cysts usually do not regrow.